The Gogo (or mgogo singular and Wagogo plural ) are ever-happy, dance-loving and agriculturalist Bantu ethnolinguistic group living in the Dodoma Region of central Tanzania. In the past Gogo people were known pastoralist and patrilineal (tracing descent and inheritance through the male line) ethnic group, but many contemporary Gogo now practice settled agriculture, have migrated to urban areas, or work on plantations throughout Tanzania. They are well-known for their musical prowess and their Gogo music has achieved an international reputation.
The Wagogo ocucupy a land in Tanzania known as Ugogo (Gogoland), and it covers most of Dodoma District. This region covers an area of 25,612 square miles, with an altitude of 480ms to 12ms above sea level (Cidosa, 1995).
Wagogo people speak Cigogo language which belongs to the eastern group of Bantu languages. Wagogo keep their Cigogo language strong within the family, even as they are now speaking Kiswahili, the official national language of Tanzania which is utilized in telecommunications, trade and commerce.
Dodoma (Tanzania, United Republic of) became a name before it became a town. There are different stories about how it happened. One story is that some Wagogo stole a herd of cattle from their southern neighbours the Wahehe; the Wagogo killed and ate the animals, preserving only the tails, and when the Wahehe came looking for the lost herd all they found were the tails sticking out of a patch of swampy ground. ''Look'', said the Wagogo, ''Your cattle have sunk in the mud, Idodomya''. Dodoma in chigogo means ''it has sunk''. There is yet another story which is most commonly accepted on the name Dodoma. An elephant came to drink at the nearby Kikuyu stream (so named after the Mikuyu fig trees growing on its banks) and got stuck in the mud. Some local people who saw it exclaimed ''Idodomya'' and from that time on the place became known as Idodomya, the place where it sank.
Grenada is a hilly tri- island state at the southern end of the Grenadines in the southeastern Caribbean Sea. Grenada is located specifically at the northwest of Trinidad and Tobago, northeast of Venezuela, and southwest of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines. The three major islands that make this southern most oasis of Caribbean chain Grenada are Grenada itself, Carriacou and Petite Martinique which form the southern end of the Windward Islands.
Black Grenadians, or Afro-Grenadians (referred to simply as African or Black constitute 82%), and mixed black and European ancestry (Mulatto are 13%) constitute 95% of the Grenadian population according to 2012 Census.
The Europeans and indigenous Arawak Caribs are only a 5% of the population. Ghanaian Fante (Akan) people with their population of 19% constitute single most largest African tribe, followed by Yoruba and Igbos at 34%.
Grenada, an island nation in the eastern Caribbean archipelago, early in history earned its nickname as "The Isle of Spice," as shiploads of nutmeg, cinnamon, mace and clove made their way across the Atlantic to satisfy the European demand for the exotic aromas and tastes of the New World and beyond.
Grenada was originally inhabited by Arawak Caribs until it was discovered by Columbus on his third voyage in 1498 and was colonized by the French and later by the English, the islands of Grenada still retain traces of these European influences in their culture, architecture and place names. The Capital, St. George’s, is located on the south west coast of Grenada. It is the seat of government and the main commercial centre.
The island of Grenada is the largest island in the Grenadines; smaller islands are Carriacou, Petit Martinique, Ronde Island, Caille Island, Diamond Island, Large Island, Saline Island, and Frigate Island. Most of the population lives on Grenada, and major towns there include the capital, St. George’s, Grenville and Gouyave. The largest settlement on the other islands is Hillsborough on Carriacou.
There is still some French influence on the island, which is found in the surnames of the locals and in the names of villages such as L'Esterre, La Resource, and Beausejour. The main language is English, with some local patois derived from French and African languages. The main religions are Catholic and Anglican.
The main town and port of entry is Hillsborough, the business center with a small hospital and the main police station. Business hours are generally between 8:00 am and 4:00 pm. Transportation between the islands is provided via a regular ferry service, in addition to daily flights for persons who prefer traveling by air.
Other main settlements are the villages of L'Esterre, Harvey Vale and Windward.
Rich in tradition, Carriacou has many unique customs and festivals handed down from African and European ancestors. These include traditional weddings, traditional boat launching, Tombstone Feast "Saraca" Libations, Big Drum Nation Dance, Village Maroons, Shakespeare Mas, All Saints Candle Lighting "Pass Play" and Fishermen’s Birthday Celebrations.
Other major events held each year are Carriacou Carnival which is held in February or early March of each year; Carriacou Regatta, a racing event for locally built boats held on the first weekend in August and Parang Festival, a celebration of the island's traditional Christmas music and culture held prior to Christmas.
Famous personalities originating from Carriacou include, two Prime Ministers in Hon. Herbert Blaize and Sir Nicholas Brathwaite, Dr. Lamuel Stanisclaus – former Grenada Ambassador to the United Nations, Anthony C. George - the designer of the national flag and Canute Calliste - national artist.
“Vicissitudes” Underwater sculpture in Grenada in honor of African Ancestors who were thrown overboard the slave ships during the Middle Passage of the African Holocaust
The language of Grenada evolved from its heritage of English, French and African ancestry. Grenadian English is based upon a tradition of British education. An American may read a quaint word like 'whilst' and be charmed, but if you live in Grenada you get to use this word.
ADDIS ABABA – Ethiopia’s government vowed that Olympic marathon silver medallist Feyisa Lilesa had nothing to fear upon returning home after staging a dramatic protest against the country’s politics, state-controlled Fana radio reported on Monday.
On Sunday, Lilesa, who came second to Kenyan favourite Eliud Kipchoge in Rio, crossed his arms as he finished the marathon in protest against the Ethiopian government’s crackdown on political dissent.
He repeated the gesture during the race’s medal ceremony, saying he was afraid to go back to his homeland following his protest “against the government’s attitude regarding Oromo people”, one of two main ethnic groups in Ethiopia.
“Lelisa won’t face any problem due to his political stance,” government spokesperson Getachew Reda told Fana.
“Though it is impossible to express a political stance at Olympic Games, the athlete will be welcomed while returning home along with other members of the Ethiopian Olympic squad,” he added.
Human rights groups say that Ethiopian security forces have killed scores of people in recent weeks as authorities crack down on a wave of anti-government unrest in two key regions, central-western Oromia and Amhara in the north.
“I have relatives in prison back home,” Lilesa said after Sunday’s marathon in Rio.
“If you talk about democracy they kill you. If I go back to Ethiopia maybe they will kill me, or put me in prison.”
“It is very dangerous in my country. Maybe I have to go to another country. I was protesting for people everywhere who have no freedom.”
here’s been an outpouring of support for the black girls at Pretoria Girls High School, but there’s also been bafflement and more discrimination. It’s just a school policy to straighten their hair, some have argued, but it’s more than that: it is the protection of white standards at the expense of black identity.
School rules and codes of conduct exist to instil discipline, so that youngsters aren’t as boisterous as they’d hope to be. There’s the sound of the bell, the uniforms, and lines of students snaking their way to assembly. It’s all very structured, but what happens when those rules suppress a student’s identity?
Enter Pretoria Girls High School, where many South Africans have directed their outrage. Teachers at the school have insisted black girls straighten their hair, and they have humiliated and shamed students who have had the audacity to attend classes at afros, dreadlocks, or any other form of their natural hair.
Pretoria Girls High School pupil: I was instructed to fix myself as if I was broken
But there’s nothing new in it, This is nothing new and the defence the school has put forward is that they’re simply trying to maintain discipline through a code of conduct not promote something more sinister such as discrimination more sinister entirely.
A few weeks ago, the Great Hall at Wits University was packed, and all eyes were glued to Nolwazi Tusini as she delivered her speech at the Ruth First Lecture. Her research in the run-up to the annual commemoration of the anti-apartheid activist was based on interviews with black people who had been among the first students to enter white schools as apartheid reformed some of its laws in the 1990s.
“I just remember wishing I had silky hair and blue eyes like my Barbie. Can you imagine that? Learning subliminally at a young age that you are not good enough, and not being aware of how damaging that is?,” Keitumetsi Maake, 28, an attorney, told Tusini.
The scene then would have been much as it is today at Pretoria Girls High School: a group of black students standing together is too much of a gevaar, black South African languages banished, and black students are welcome if their skin is palatably dark, not too dark – how’s that for fair treatment?
Tusini argued that the students of the 1990s conformed by speaking English and straightening their hair as a means of survival. Their elders would have been brutally subjected to the so-called pencil test where a pencil was placed inside their hair and if it remained, they were classified as black and marginalised from society. The test was a form of eugenics; using hair to determine a person’s racial identity.
Yet, the black girls’ protest at the Pretoria high school has been undermined as an issue of school rules rather than how white people had always looked at African hair: an undesirable marker of blackness.
John Robbie, a radio presenter at 702, brought up school rules and the necessity of them in conversation with former Pretoria Girls’ High School student Mishka Wazar. Wazar, a journalist, schooled Robbie on the significance of the rules for black identity.
“… You got to have a boundary somewhere. Because there’s an element of discipline. There’s an element of youthful exuberance,” Robbie told Mazar after she outlined the school’s hair rules in her time there.
“The problem is that we are not talking about youthful exuberance, we are talking about self-expression. We are talking about identity,” Wazar responded.
For the girls protesting at the school, this isn’t about siezing the opportunity for some youthful rebellion. They have spoken about how very deeply the school’s treatment of black hair is connected to who they are and how hurt they are.
“She instructed me to fix myself as if I was broken,” a student at the school said of her dreadlocks. “My hair is natural and connected to my roots. They are not braids, they are roots.”
Now, the protests have spread to Lawson Brown High School in the Eastern Cape. As students fight for what’s theirs, they are rejecting white assimilation, refusing to conform to a way of being that would force them to speak with the “right” accent or burn their scalps using chemical treatments so their hair is more “tidy” in its straightness.
The “Festivals Des Divinites Noires” (The Festival of Black Deities) is celebrated annually at the Togo`s ancient city of Aneho at different months (but in recent times in December) as its organizers (Acofin African Heritage Association) deemed it fit. The festival identifies 41 vodoun (voodoo) deities for worship and celebration. Voodoo was born in Benin (Dahomey) and Togo as well as Kongo before being exported to Brazil, Cuba. United States of America (Louisiana,New Orleans) and Haiti (where it is largely practiced).
The major motivation for this festival is to afford both Africans and Africans in diaspora an opportunity for their historical identification, restoration and promotion of African heritage. For Acofin association, the promoters of the “Festivals Des Divinites Noires,” the celebration is a memory issue, ownership, rehabilitation, and recovery for the African people living everywhere.
The Festival of Black Deities (“Festivals Des Divinites Noires”) was established in 2006 by Acofin organization . It is for meetings, exchanges, training, transmission, exploration and groundbreaking discoveries. Initially its concentration was to give priority to traditional religions and initiation societies.
Afro-Colombian women are one group of blacks in South America that has never forgotten their African heritage when it comes to hair-styling. Afro-Colombian women braid hairstyles that their African ancestors passed on to them.
Many people of other cultures try to hide their African roots by bleaching their skin and claiming to be Indian. Columbia sounds like a beautifully diverse and proud country/culture. Every year, they take part in Smithsonian Folklife Festival in Cali to celebrate their African roots, culture and hair.
Once a year in Colombia, on May 21st, they celebrate the day of Afro Colombians commemorating the abolition of slavery in that country that happened the same day in the year 1851. The year 2011 also has been declared by the UN as the International Year for People of African Descent so the reunion in Cali, Colombia was even more special.
As part of the celebration, there is a contest of Afro Hairstyles that has the purpose of honoring the African culture and the people who works waving African hair and keep this tradition alive.The contest has three categories: Women braids, Men braids and Children hairstyles. At the same time something called the “Hairstyle Marathon” takes place where you can go and have your hair braided for a good price.
The Somali Bantu (Jareer, Gosha and Mushunguli) people are resourceful, humble, hospitable and predominantly Af Maay-speaking minority ethnic group that primarily inhabit the interriverine area of southern Somalia, near the vicinity of the Shabelle and Juba Rivers. They are also found in the towns of Jamaame, Jilib, Bu’alle, Sakow and Kamsuma.
The ancestral tribes from Southeast Africa whose natives were captured and enslaved include, among others, the Makua and Yao of southern Tanzania and northern Mozambique; the Ngindo of southern Tanzania; the Nyasa of southern Tanzania, northern Mozambique, and northern Malawi; and the Zaramo and Zigua of northeast Tanzania. Other southeast African tribes represented among the Bantu refugees include the Digo, Makale, Manyawa, Nyamwezi, and Nyika.
The black-skin Somali Bantu people are given various names with serious derogatory slurs by the light-skin Somalis. The Somali Bantu people, especially those who fled the once forested Juba River valley, are politely referred to as Wagosha (“people of the forest”) or Jareer (term used to describe Africans with hard or kinky hair). Derogatory terms to describe the Somali Bantu include adoon and habash, which translate as “slave.” Some Somalis also call the Bantu ooji, which in Italian means “today”and refers to the Somali's perception of the Bantu as lacking the ability to think beyond the moment.
Despite the abuses against them, the Bantu have been described as a resourceful people with many different skills. Bantu who have gone to the cities have worked in a variety of labor intensive occupations. Their resourcefulness and hard work is evident in the refugee camps as well, where the Bantu have been engaged in similar types of jobs as well as agricultural work. The Bantu have also been described as humble and hospitable. They are known for their capacity to easily adjust to any situation.
The Borana are one of the major semi-nomadic pastoralist Oromo Cushitic-speaking people living in Eastern and North Eastern Africa. Cushitic speakers have occupied parts of north-eastern and eastern Africa for as long as recorded history. There are almost 4 million Borana people, most living in Ethiopia.
Borana people are found mainly in Ethiopia (99%), but are spread from as far as:
• Northern Ethiopia in Oromia region (southern Tigray Region), mostly in Liban and Dire.
• Kenya (mainly northern). About 44% of the Kenya Borana live in Marsabit District, into Tana River District and Garissa District. About 80% of the Borana in Marsabit District live in Sololo, Saku, Waso and Moyale Divisions. Those in Isiolo District are concentrated in Merti and Garba Tula.
• Even as far south as Lamu Island.
Borana are speakers of Afaan Oromo. Afaan oromo is Eastern Cushitic language, a classification that belongs to the family of Afro-Cushitic. Borana refers to their language as afan Borana, a dominant language spoken within the Borana region in Ethiopia and Kenya.
The parallel "modern" phenomena of rapid population growth and decreasing availability of productive grazing land threaten the Borana people. Contacts with other nomadic peoples lead to clashes, sometimes bloody, for land. Also they have been increasingly dependent upon relief agencies for help, which is culturally repugnant to these proud people.
Botswana keeps moving up in peaceful ranking index. Botswana is now ranked (28) higher than half of european countries including france and the UK, and way above US (103). Though Botswana still falls behind other african countries like Mauritius. Bravo Botswana for good governance and progressive utilization of your natural resources like diamond to benefit the citizens.