It is generally believed that black people do not possess blue eyes. The blue eyes has always been associated with the Caucasians (whites). In many scientific studies and a more recent one conducted by the Copenhagen University the genetic mystery of "blue eyes" is said to have originated from the northeast coast of the Black Sea.
So why are some few black people have "blue eyes' nowadays? The answer according to scientists could only be attributed to genetic mutation or Waardenburg syndrome (WS),which is a rare (1/40,000) disease characterized by sensorineural deafness in association with pigmentary anomalies and defects of neural-crest-derived tissues.
However,it is also a historical truth the Africans colonized Europe over 10,000 years ago and they were inf fact the first homo sapiens to cross Europe to Asia and south pacific. Could it also be that some blacks with blue eyes may have gotten blue eyes from their ancient African ancestors and whites that inter-bred during Africa`s colonization of Europe? This question has become more relevant as some few children born of both African/100% black parents possesses "blue eyes."
KROBO PEOPLE: GHANA`S FAMOUS BEADS PRODUCING TRIBE AND THEIR UNIQUE DIPO INITIATION RITE
The Krobo people are grouped as part of Ga-Dangme ethnolinguistic group and they are also the largest group of the seven Dangbe ethnic groups of Southeastern Ghana. They are farming people who occupy Accra Plains, Akuapim Mountains and the Afram Basin.
The historical origins of Krobo people to their present habitation is a subject of great academic and oral debate in Ghana. While Jackson, backed by oral tradition, state that the Krobo migrated from somewhere in Eastern Nigeria, the other documented sources (notably Enock Azu, Reindorf, Huber, Field, Kropp Dakubu, Wilson and S. S. Odonkor) point mainly to Sameh in Dahomey (Benin) as the probable source of origin of the Krobo together with other proto-Dangmes. Others point out the origin of the Krobo as Sameh in Western Nigeria, southwest of the River Ogun.
Presently, most scholars assume that the Krobo migrated from around the regions of Nigeria, crossed the Savanah westward through hostile lands and crossed the River Volta, and settled at the Tagologo plains, within the Accra Plains, later to be called Lolovor some where around the fourteenth century. (Lolovor means brotherly love is finished in allusion to community quarrels among the immigrants for control of farming land.) After wandering between the present sites of Ada and Lɔl vɔ Hill, they established their home on the Krobo Hill, where, to this day, may be seen the ruins of their old town, built of solid rock, as well as the remains of their ancient ritual shrines. Here, tradition says the Dangme tribes split up and went their several ways.
The Krobo under the leadership of Madza and Aklo Muase settled in a newly discovered plateau with steep sides and a few entry points, (The Krobo Mountain). On this mountain they lived for more than four hundred years. Once there, additional Dangme and even alien races escaping from tribal wars like the Akan as well as some Ewe groups were ritually admitted between the fourteenth and sixteenth centuries.
The exact date on which the krobos divided themselves into Yilo and Manya krobo is still uncertain. According to one account, the Krobo remained a more or less united nation until 1858. It opined that, in 1858 Ologo Patu, the Chief of South Western Krobo led a rebellion against the Government. This owed its origin partly to the strong objection the people of the eastern districts had against the paying of poll tax, and partly to a quarrel with Odonkor Azu, the Chief of Eastern Krobo, whom Patu attacked. (In earlier years the Manya Krobo were known to Government as the Eastern Krobo, whilst the Yilo were known as the Western Krobo). From that date to this day, the Krobo have been administered as two separate States, named today as Manya and Yilo Krobo. Ologo Patu, or his predecessor that is theYilo, were said to have arrived on the Krobo Hill a very long time after the main body. He and his followers were said to have come from Denkyera probably after the collapse of that ancient Kingdom in the latter part of 17th century. Whether they were then of true Denkyera blood (ie Akan)and later adopted the customs of the Krobo, notably circumcision, and became absorbed into the main Krobo ethnic group as held by the Manyas, or whether they were remnants of the original migrants who had lost their way coming from Nigeria.
Ethnic Hambukushu mother from Okavango Delta with her child on her back crossing the flooded Okavango River in Botswana. Hambukushu (Mbukushu, Bukushu, Bukusu, Mbukuschu, Mamakush, Mampakush, Ghuva, Haghuva, Gova, Cusso, Kusso, Hakokohu, Havamasiko), are a small Bantu-speaking amalgamated people of Barotseland origin of the Central Bantu matrilineal agricultural complex living especially in Ngamiland (The Okavango Delta) in Botswana and some part of South West Africa. Apart from Botswana, Hambukushu people live in northern Namibia and southern Angola. There are also Hambukushu people in southwestern Zambia.
HAMBUKUSHU PEOPLE: AFRICA`S RAIN-MAKERS OF OKAVANGO
The Tswana-speaking people of Botswana call these Bantu natives from Barotseland in Zambia as "Mbukushu," but the collective name the people have given to themselves is "Hambukushu." One person from the tribe is Mbukushu and their language is Simbukushu.
The Hambukushu are known for their rain-making prowess in Okavango Delta and as a result they are known as "The Rain-makers of Okavango." They are known for their basket weaving artistry and their woman are also known for using traps to catch fish.
The Hambukushu people together with four other tribes in South Africa are known as "The Okavango Delta" people. The four including:
(1) Bugakwe (Kxoe, Bugakhoe, Kwengo, Barakwena, Mbarakwena, Mbarakwengo, G/anda, /anda),
(2) Dxeriku (Dceriku, Diriku, Gceriku, Gciriku, Vagciriku, Giriku, Mbogedo, Niriku, Vamanyo),
(3) Wayeyi (Bayei, Bayeyi, Bakoba, Bajei, Jo, Hajo, Tjaube, Yei), and
(4) Xanekwe (Gxanekwe, //tanekwe, tannekhoe, River Bushmen, Swamp Bushmen, G//ani, //ani, Banoka). Note that for each of these groups, there are many different spellings (and pronunciations). Some of these
are names from another language; others are corruptions or misinterpretations. Since many outsiders have contributed to the written history of these groups and people have moved across national boundaries, it is important to recognize this disparate nomenclature to preserve the breadth of each group’s cultural history.
In the time past, Hambukushu people called themselves as the Haguva, "the people.'and one person is a "guva." According to some Hambukushu oral historians, Hambukushu also used to refer to themselves as "Havamasiko" before they arrived along the Okavango River about the beginning of 19th century.
Hambukushu women fishing in the river with their traditional basket traps, Okavango Delta, Botswana.
Historically,Hambukushu have a legend that their Supreme God, Nyembe created the first people of their tribe and let them down on a rope from Heaven to the Tsodilo Hills. they authenticate their story by saying that they can show the actual footprints of the first men and animals on the rocks. However, many historians disagree with this legend, claiming that the prints on the rock are the Rock Arts of San (Bushmen) people.
Historically, Hambukushu is first recorded as a tribe of Barotse origin.
The history of Etsha settlement in north-western Botswana dates back to 1967 when 3,300 refugees from the Hambukushu tribe in southern Angola crossed into Botswana, fleeing Portuguese attacks during Angola's war of independence. In those days, Portuguese forces used to attack villages, burn the houses and take the livestock away, leaving the Hambukushu without any means of subsistence and finally forcing them to leave their territories.
The first arrivals in Botswana were recorded in December 1967. Reverend Wynne, a priest who worked with the refugees for many years, describes how they came in a terrible state: "They were naked except for a rough cloth covering their middle. The women had simple traditional ornaments and carried a plaited screen mat, a bundle with a few things and a water pot on their heads."
The refugees had nothing to eat but wild fruits in the bush. Emaciated and weakened by war and famine, many people died of sleeping sickness. In order to survive, the refugees looked for work among the Bayeye people who were traditionally farming the Etsha region of northern Botswana.
When the Hambukushu first arrived in Botswana, they were met by a wave of overwhelming hospitality and support. In order to give the newly-arrived refugees a status in Botswana, the Paramount Chief of the Batawana, Letsholatebe, adopted them as members of his tribe and allocated them land. The refugees were settled in 13 villages.
Efik women from Calabar performing their traditional dance on the street during Calabar Carnival Festival at their capital Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria. In recent times, Africa has been said to be the fastest growing tourism region with international arrivals reaching a 7.5 percent increase over that of the previous year with 360 million tourists recorded in 1998, 25 million (6.94%) visited Africa (Odunsanwo, 2009
The Calabar Carnival has gone a long way since its inception in 2004, when the then governor of the State, Mr. Donald Duke had a vision of making the state the hub for tourism and hospitality in Nigerian and in Africa. In its first celebration, it featured the Ekpo Cultural group, the Mary Slessor Caravan, Cocoa pod, the low land Gorilla of the last rain forest in West Africa. The Carnival presents a perfect platform from brand visibility for consumer and market awareness.
SAN (BUSHMEN) PEOPLE: THE WORLD MOST ANCIENT RACE/PEOPLE
The San 'Bushmen' also known as Khwe, Sho, and Basarwa are the oldest inhabitants of southern Africa, (and are part of the Khoisan group), where they have lived for at least 20,000 years. They are hunter-gatherer peoples of southern Africa. Genetic evidence also suggests the San Bushmen are one of the oldest peoples in the world. Their home is in the vast expanse of the Kalahari desert.
The initiatory rituals of the Bijago people The Bijago people live on this archipelago that has resisted Portuguese invasion for five centuries.
It is a patchwork of mudflats, mangroves, palm groves and savanna grasslands which produce a wide diversity and abundance of natural resources. The archipelago currently has a population of some 25,000 inhabitants constituting over 2% of the total population of the country.
Bijago have traditionally resented all centralized authority,whether Portuguese,*French*, English, German or contemporary government officials. In 1447,when the Portuguese explorer, Nuna Tristao, tried to conquer the Bijagos, they killed him instantly because they do not want any form of rule except their matriarchal traditional system that create chiefs to rule them.
Girls from initiation. They hold reeds symbolizing the belief that the Basotho had their genesis in a reed bed. They wear cowskin skirts because the cow, which was at the basis of their traditional culture, is “the Basotho’s mother”.
The inflated gall bladder (in the hair ) is for good luck. The animal fat around their necks comes from the reproductive organs of the stock which has been sacrificed for their initiation. It enhances their fertility.However, currently the trend seems to have changed. More boys are again leaving school and joining Lebollo.
Martinique women of the Caribbean celebrating their African Heritage Day. Martinique which is an aboriginal home to the Arawak Caribs has about 97% of its population composed of people of African descent and it shows the time honored-endurance and resilience of Africans wherever they find themselves. It is a birthplace of the concept of Négritude created by the island’s beloved poet and elder statesman Aimé_Césaire. Blacks (enslaved Africans) were sent to Martinique by the French during the Trans-Atlantic slave trade to work in the plantations. The blacks engaged in series of revolts between 1752, 1789-1790 (Thousands rebelled during the French Revolution), 1822 and 1833.
Martinique`s demographics shows total population of 396,941 with 357,246 being Africans and African-white-Indian mixture, 19,847 as Caucausians, whilst 19,847 are of Indian Tamil or East Indian, Chinese.
This Caribbean island with French flair is known variously as "The Isle of Flowers," "The Rum Capital of the World," and in literary world " The Isle of the Famed Poet (Aime Cesaire)" – by any one of its many names Martinique remains one of the most alluring and enchanting destinations in the world.
Martinique is one of the twenty-seven regions of France (being an overseas region) and an integral part of the French Republic. As part of France, Martinique is part of the European Union, and its currency is the Euro. Its official language is French, although many of its inhabitants also speak Antillean Creole (Créole Martiniquais).
Martinique`s cultural website has this to say about the Island "It was named "Top Caribbean Island for Delectable Dining" in 2009 by Caribbean Travel + Life, and "Best Caribbean Destination" (2010) The bay of Fort-de-France, the capital city, is among the most beautiful bays of the world. Martinique is an overseas region of France that stirs the passions with distinctive culinary delights, awe-inspiring natural beauty, a rich cultural history, warm smiles and so much more.